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"MMT [Manual Muscle Testing] is synonymous with Applied Kinesiology (AK) and other forms of 'energy medicine', used for a variety of purposes by alternative practitioners – osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy, rehabilitation, and athletic training professionals. The patient holds out one arm and the practitioner pushes it down. The first time they do this, the arm moves down quickly; the second time, however, usually after the 'intervention', the arm appears to better resist. The patient sees this as suddenly being imbued with increased strength. Chiropractors, osteopaths and kinesiologists may use this test to 'prove' that their treatment increased their patient's strength. An investigation into the 'Methods and Styles of Manual Muscle Testing by AK Practitioners' showed that practitioners did not clearly differentiate between examiner - or patient-started muscle testing, and that the tests lacked reliability. The study concluded, "the evidence to date does not support the use of MMT for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions". Even an investigation published in the Chiropractic and Manual Therapies journal backed this conclusion...If 'energy medicine' does work, someone will have to re-write all of our physics books, for its most basic propositions run completely contrary to everything we know about physics. When it comes to thinking up new scams, or recycling old ones, most of which target seniors, patients with chronic pain and gullible people, the imagination of alternative practitioners seems boundless. So once again, as far as most 'Complementary and Alternative Medicine' interventions are concerned, my advice is to ask for the evidence before parting with your cash, and make sure that evidence comes from an independent and credible source, and not from those who will profit from your gullibility." Loretta Marron, BSc, Chief Executive Officer of the Friends of Science in Medicine, Information to Pharmacists (July 2012)