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"What is clear is that a variety of so-called 'attachment therapies' should be avoided. These treatments are often provided to children or adolescents with a history of early deprivation or maltreatment and a clinical picture characterized by 'psychopathic qualities', such as shallow or fake emotions, superficial connections to others, lack of remorse, and failures of empathy. Non-contingently coercive therapies, including 'compression holding therapies', 'rebirthing therapies', or promotion of regression for 're-attachment', have no empirical support for efficacy and have been associated with serious harm, including death." Charles H. Zeanah, MD, Developmental and Behavioural News, American Academy of Pediatrics (Autumn 2003)