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"Manipulative therapy was found in the latest meta-analysis to be slightly more effective than sham therapy (by 4 points on a 100-point scale), but not more effective than other forms of care, including care by a general practitioner, physiotherapy or exercises, 'back school', or therapies known to be ineffective. A contemporary review echoes these findings." Nikolai Bogduk, The Medical Journal of Australia (January 2004)